This is a beta feature that aims to streamline and simplify finding relevant citations. It uses Mendeley ( which has a website and desktop app. The reason this bibliography software is used (as opposed to for e.g. endnote) as it is free and therefore available to anyone and seems the best way to do this sort of thing on WordPress. Any suggestions are welcome, especially for making it searchable/interactive.

The references are collected via Web of Knowledge using the following search terms: Zoo AND Welfare; Aquarium AND Welfare; Ornamental AND Fish AND Welfare. To come: Zoo AND Behaviour; Zoo AND Breeding; etc.

The references are  heavily dominated by the aquatic taxa for the time being, if you use Mendeley and have a bibliography that you would like to share we would be very grateful. As stated above this a beta version of the page and therefore may have one or two quirks! There are also a few non-peer reviewed citations for example, husbandry documents published by WAZA et al., Citations are in alphabetical order (ordered last name first, even if first name is shown before last name urghh – something that needs a fix)

The best way to use this page is to Ctrl+F – a box will appear for you to type in a keyword, good for highly specific terms or general topics

If there are significant issues with this page you can access the bibliography here:

Mendeley Plugin: groupby = , sortby = authors, sortorder = asc, filter = Array

Mendeley Plugin: using cached output

S A Adamo, R T Hanlon (1996) Do cuttlefish (Cephalopoda) signal their intentions to conspecifics during agonistic encounters?, Anim Behav 52, p. 73-81, doi:

S a Adamo, W M Brown, a J King, D L Mather, J a Mather, K L Shoemaker, J B Wood (2000) Agonistic and reproductive behaviours of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in a semi-natural environment, J. Moll. Stud. 66, p. 417-419, doi:10.1093/mollus/66.3.417

Shelley Anne Adamo (2016) Do insects feel pain? A question at the intersection of animal behaviour, philosophy and robotics, Animal Behaviour 118, p. 75-79, url, doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.05.005

Shelley a. Adamo, Kelly Ehgoetz, Cheryl Sangster, Ivy Whitehorne (2006) Signaling to the enemy? Body pattern expression and its response to external cues during hunting in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda), Biological Bulletin 210(3), p. 192-200, doi:10.2307/4134557

Andrew Aiken (2013) 2nd International Elasmobranch Husbandry Symposium(November)

D. J. Alderman, T. S. Hastings (1998) Antibiotic use in aquaculture: development of antibiotic resistance - potential for consumer health risks*, International Journal of Food Science and Technology 33(2), p. 139-155, url, doi:10.1046/j.1365-2621.1998.3320139.x

D. Almeida, A. Almodóvar, G.G. Nicola, B. Elvira (2008) Fluctuating asymmetry, abnormalities and parasitism as indicators of environmental stress in cultured stocks of goldfish and carp, Aquaculture 279(1-4), p. 120-125, url, doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.04.003

G. V. Amdam, A. L. Hovland (2012) Measuring Animal Preferences and Choice Behavior, Nature Education Knowledge 3(10), p. 1-9, url

Piero Amodio, Paul Andrews, Marinella Salemme, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito (2014) The use of artificial crabs for testing predatory behavior and health in the octopus., Altex, pubmed, doi:

Martin Amrein, Michael Heistermann, Tony Weingrill (2014) The Effect of Fission–Fusion Zoo Housing on Hormonal and Behavioral Indicators of Stress in Bornean Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), International Journal of Primatology 35(2), p. 509-528, url, doi:10.1007/s10764-014-9765-5

Claes Anderson, Attur Shanmugam Arun, Per Jensen (2010) Habituation to environmental enrichment in captive sloth bears-effect on stereotypies, Zoo Biology 29(6), p. 705-714, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.20301

Emily J. Anderson, Robert B. Weladji, Patrick Paré, Patrick Par??, Patrick Paré (2016) Changes in the dominance hierarchy of captive female Japanese macaques as a consequence of merging two previously established groups, Zoo Biology 35(6), p. 505-512, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.21322

Roland C Anderson, James B Wood, Ruth a Byrne (2002) Octopus senescence: the beginning of the end., Journal of applied animal welfare science : JAAWS 5(4), p. 275-283, doi:10.1207/S15327604JAWS0504_02

W F Angermeier, Kirsten Dassler (1992) Inhibitory learning and memory in the lesser octopus ( Eledone cirrhosai 30(4), p. 309-310, doi:10.3758/BF03330474

Gabrielle a. Archard (2012) Effect of enrichment on the behaviour and growth of juvenile Xenopus laevis, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 139(3-4), p. 264-270, Elsevier B.V., url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2012.04.003

Gabrielle a. Archard (2013) Refuge use affects daily activity patterns in female Xenopus laevis, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 145(3-4), p. 123-128, Elsevier B.V., url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2013.02.006

O. Arizpe, M. Covarrubias (2010) Sustainable tourism planning for the only coral reef in the Gulf of California: Cabo Pulmo national park, p. 263-273, url, doi:10.2495/ST100231

Kate C. Baker (2000) Advanced age influences chimpanzee behavior in small social groups, Zoo Biology 19(2), p. 111-119, url, doi:10.1002/1098-2361(2000)19:2<111::AID-ZOO2>3.0.CO;2-5

Danielle M Barbiero-Turk (2012) Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Learning a Discrimination Task by Captive White-spotted Bamboo Sharks ( Chiloscyllium plagiosum ), Environmental Science and Biology Theses, url

Alexandra Barbosa, Lydia M. Mäthger, Kendra C. Buresch, Jennifer Kelly, Charles Chubb, Chuan Chin Chiao, Roger T. Hanlon (2008) Cuttlefish camouflage: The effects of substrate contrast and size in evoking uniform, mottle or disruptive body patterns, Vision Research 48(10), p. 1242-1253, doi:10.1016/j.visres.2008.02.011

a. Barbosa, J. J. Allen, L. M. Mathger, R. T. Hanlon (2012) Cuttlefish use visual cues to determine arm postures for camouflage, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279(1726), p. 84-90, doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0196

Shanis Barnard, Simone Calderara, Simone Pistocchi, Rita Cucchiara, Michele Podaliri-Vulpiani, Stefano Messori, Nicola Ferri (2016) Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals’ Behaviour, PLOS ONE 11(7), Claire Wade (ed.), p. e0158748, url, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158748

Stuart Barr, Peter R. Laming, Jaimie T.A. Dick, Robert W. Elwood (2008) Nociception or pain in a decapod crustacean?, Animal Behaviour 75(3), p. 745-751, url, doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.07.004

Meredith J Bashaw, Loraine R Tarou, Todd S Maki, Terry L Maple (2001) A survey assessment of variables related to stereotypy in captive giraffe and okapi, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73(3), p. 235-247, url, doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(01)00137-X

Meredith J. Bashaw, Mallory D. Gibson, Devan M. Schowe, Abigail S. Kucher (2016) Does enrichment improve reptile welfare? Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) respond to five types of environmental enrichment, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 184, p. 150-160, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2016.08.003

Meredith J. Bashaw (2011) Consistency of captive giraffe behavior under two different management regimes, Zoo Biology 30(4), p. 371-378, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.20338

M Beigel, J Boal (2006) The effect of habitat enrichment on the mudflat octopus, The Shape Of Enrichment 15(1), p. 3-6, url

Allyson J. Bennett, Sangeeta Panicker (2016) Broader impacts: international implications and integrative ethical consideration of policy decisions about US chimpanzee research, American Journal of Primatology 78(12), p. 1282-1303, url, doi:10.1002/ajp.22582

Stefan Bergleiter, Simon Meisch (2015) Certification Standards for Aquaculture Products: Bringing Together the Values of Producers and Consumers in Globalised Organic Food Markets, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28(3), p. 553-569, url, doi:10.1007/s10806-015-9531-5

Jenny Bergqvist, Stefan Gunnarsson (2013) Finfish Aquaculture: Animal Welfare, the Environment, and Ethical Implications, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26(1), p. 75-99, doi:10.1007/s10806-011-9346-y

Cristian Bernardi, Luciana Baggiani, Erica Tirloni, Simone Stella, Fabio Colombo, Vittorio Maria Moretti, Patrizia Cattaneo (2015) Hemolymph parameters as physiological biomarkers in American lobster (Homarus americanus) for monitoring the effects of two commercial maintenance methods, Fisheries Research 161, p. 280-284, url, doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2014.08.013

Lucy P. Birkett, Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher (2011) How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?, PLoS ONE 6(6), Sharon Gursky-Doyen (ed.), p. e20101, url, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020101

J Bishop, G Hosey, a Plowman (2013) Handbook of Zoo Research, Guidelines for Conducting Research in Zoos, p. 197

J G Boal, R a Hylton, S a Gonzalez, R T Hanlon (1999) Effects of crowding on the social behavior of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 38(1), p. 49-55

Alain Boissy (2007) Emotion and cognition a new approach to animal welfare, Animal Welfare 16 (S)(APRIL), p. 37-43

Kristin E. Bonnie, Mabel Y.L. Ang, Stephen R. Ross (2016) Effects of crowd size on exhibit use by and behavior of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) at a zoo, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 178, p. 102-110, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2016.03.003

Ana C. Borges, Nuno Pereira, Maysa Franco, Liliana Vale, Margarida Pereira, Mónica V. Cunha, Ana Amaro, Teresa Albuquerque, Manuel Rebelo (2016) Implementation of a Zebrafish Health Program in a Research Facility: A 4-Year Retrospective Study, Zebrafish 13(S1), p. S-115-S-126, url, doi:10.1089/zeb.2015.1230

Marta Borgi, Francesca Cirulli (2015) Attitudes toward Animals among Kindergarten Children: Species Preferences, Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals 28(1), p. 45-59, url, doi:10.2752/089279315X14129350721939

P R Boyle (1981) Methods for the aquarium maintenance of the common octopus of British waters, Eledone cirrhosa., Laboratory animals 15(4), p. 327-31, pubmed, doi:10.1258/002367781780952807

Sarah A. Boyle, Beth Roberts, Brittany M. Pope, Margaret R. Blake, Stephen E. Leavelle, Jennifer J. Marshall, Andrew Smith, Amanda Hadicke, Josephine F. Falcone, Katrina Knott, Andrew J. Kouba (2015) Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response, PLOS ONE 10(11), Gregg Roman (ed.), p. e0141009, url, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141009

Bjarne O Braastad (1998) Effects of prenatal stress on behaviour of offspring of laboratory and farmed mammals, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 61(2), p. 159-180, url, doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00188-9

M.B.M. Bracke (2006) Providing cross-species comparisons of animal welfare with a scientific basis, NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 54(1), p. 61-75, Koninklijke Landbouwkundige Vereniging (KLV), url, doi:10.1016/S1573-5214(06)80004-7

Colin M. Brand, Klaree J. Boose, Erica C. Squires, Linda F. Marchant, Frances J. White, Audra Meinelt, J. Josh Snodgrass (2016) Hair plucking, stress, and urinary cortisol among captive bonobos ( Pan paniscus ), Zoo Biology 35(5), p. 415-422, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.21320

Emile Bredenhand, Michael J. Samways (2009) Impact of a dam on benthic macroinvertebrates in a small river in a biodiversity hotspot: Cape Floristic Region, South Africa, Journal of Insect Conservation 13(3), p. 297-307, url, doi:10.1007/s10841-008-9173-2

Mark Briffa, Lynne U. Sneddon (2016) Proximate mechanisms of animal personality among-individual behavioural variation in animals, Behaviour 153(October), p. 1509-1515, doi:10.1163/1568539X-00003402

Jake S. Brooker (2016) An investigation of the auditory perception of western lowland gorillas in an enrichment study, Zoo Biology 35(5), p. 398-408, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.21312

Donald M. Broom (2010) Cognitive ability and awareness in domestic animals and decisions about obligations to animals, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 126(1-2), p. 1-11, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2010.05.001

Howard I. Browman, Anne Berit Skiftesvik (2011) Welfare of aquatic organisms: Is there some faith-based HARKing going on here?, Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 94(3), p. 255-257, doi:10.3354/dao02366

(2016) Scientific evaluation of animal emotions : Brief history and recent New Zealand contributions 22, p. 63-71

E Bruins, Artis Royal, Zoo Amsterdam (2008) Apogonidae Taxon Advisory Group Husbandry guidelines Banggai Cardinalfish ( Pterapogon kauderni )

Nichola M. Brydges, Victoria A. Braithwaite (2009) Does environmental enrichment affect the behaviour of fish commonly used in laboratory work?, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118(3-4), p. 137-143, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2009.02.017

Nichola M. Brydges, Philip Boulcott, Tim Ellis, Victoria A. Braithwaite (2009) Quantifying stress responses induced by different handling methods in three species of fish, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116(2-4), p. 295-301, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2008.09.003

a Burhans, Robert (1999) Pipefish husbandry and propagation, PipeFish Husbandry and Propagation, p. 13

Judith Maria Burkart, Carel van Schaik (2013) Group service in macaques (Macaca fuscata), capuchins (Cebus apella) and marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): A comparative approach to identifying proactive prosocial motivations., Journal of Comparative Psychology 127(2), p. 212-225, url, doi:10.1037/a0026392

FAY E. CLARK, LAUREN J. SMITH (2013) Effect of a Cognitive Challenge Device Containing Food and Non-Food Rewards on Chimpanzee Well-Being, American Journal of Primatology 75(8), p. 807-816, url, doi:10.1002/ajp.22141

I. R. Caldwell, M. Correia, J. Palma, A. C. J. Vincent (2011) Advances in tagging syngnathids, with the effects of dummy tags on behaviour of Hippocampus guttulatus, Journal of Fish Biology 78(6), p. 1769-1785, url, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.02983.x

Hannah J. Calich, Richard J. Wassersug (2012) The Architecture of the Aquatic Environment and Its Influence on the Growth and Development of Tadpoles (Xenopus laevis), Copeia 2012(4), p. 690-697, url, doi:10.1643/CE-11-012

Róisín Campbell-Palmer, Frank Rosell (2015) Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers, Zoo Biology 34(2), p. 101-109, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.21200

Jonnie M. Capiro, Monica A. Stoops, Elizabeth W. Freeman, Dave Clawson, Mandi W. Schook (2014) Effects of management strategies on glucocorticoids and behavior in Indian rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis ): Translocation and operant conditioning, Zoo Biology 33(2), p. 131-143, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.21119

Gemma Carder, Stuart Semple (2008) Visitor effects on anxiety in two captive groups of western lowland gorillas, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 115(3-4), p. 211-220, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2008.06.001

Claudio Carere, James B. Wood, Jennifer Mather (2011) Species differences in captivity: Where are the invertebrates?, Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26(5), p. 211, Elsevier Ltd, url, doi:10.1016/j.tree.2011.01.003

Claudio Carere, Giuseppe Nascetti, Alessandro Carlini, Daniela Santucci, Enrico Alleva (2015) Actions for restocking of the European lobster 26(1), p. 59-64, doi:10.1007/s12210-014-0361-6

Kathy Carlstead, Jill Mellen, Devra G. Kleiman (1999) Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in U.S. zoos: I. individual behavior profiles and their relationship to breeding success, Zoo Biology 18(1), p. 17-34, url, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1999)18:1<17::AID-ZOO4>3.0.CO;2-K

Kathy Carlstead, Joy A. Mench, Cheryl Meehan, Janine L. Brown (2013) An Epidemiological Approach to Welfare Research in Zoos: The Elephant Welfare Project, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 16(4), p. 319-337, url, doi:10.1080/10888705.2013.827915

Kathy Carlstead (2009) A comparative approach to the study of Keeper-Animal Relationships in the zoo, Zoo Biology, p. n/a-n/a, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.20289

Jordi Casamitjana (2004) Aquatic zoos: A critical study of UK public aquaria in the year 2004, p. 1-136

Miguel Casares, Gema Silván, Maria Dolores Carbonell, Cati Gerique, Leticia Martinez-Fernandez, Sara Cáceres, Juan Carlos Illera (2016) Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion in female zoo-kept African elephants ( Loxodonta africana ), Zoo Biology 35(1), p. 65-69, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.21262

Gustavo A. Castellanos-Galindo, Jaime R. Cantera, Silvana Espinosa, Luz Marina Mejía-Ladino (2011) Use of local ecological knowledge, scientist's observations and grey literature to assess marine species at risk in a tropical eastern Pacific estuary, Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21(1), p. 37-48, url, doi:10.1002/aqc.1163

Monica Celi, Francesco Filiciotto, Mirella Vazzana, Vincenzo Arizza, Vincenzo Maccarrone, Maria Ceraulo, Salvatore Mazzola, Giuseppa Buscaino (2015) Shipping noise affecting immune responses of European spiny lobster ( Palinurus elephas ), Canadian Journal of Zoology 121(3), p. 113-121, doi:10.1139/cjz-2014-0219

Carly L. Chadwick, Paul A. Rees, Barry Stevens-Wood (2013) Captive-housed male cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii ) form naturalistic coalitions: Measuring associations and calculating chance encounters, Zoo Biology 32(5), p. 518-527, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.21085

K. P. Chandroo, I. J H Duncan, R. D. Moccia (2004) Can fish suffer?: Perspectives on sentience, pain, fear and stress, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 86(3-4), p. 225-250, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2004.02.004

Gita I. Chelluri, Stephen R. Ross, Katherine E. Wagner (2013) Behavioral correlates and welfare implications of informal interactions between caretakers and zoo-housed chimpanzees and gorillas, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 147(3-4), p. 306-315, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2012.06.008

Chuan-Chin Chiao, Charles Chubb, Kendra C Buresch, Alexandra Barbosa, Justine J Allen, Lydia M Mäthger, Roger T Hanlon (2010) Mottle camouflage patterns in cuttlefish: quantitative characterization and visual background stimuli that evoke them., The Journal of experimental biology 213(2), p. 187-199, doi:10.1242/jeb.030247

Yuanting Choo, Peter Alan Todd, Daiqin Li (2011) Visitor effects on zoo orangutans in two novel, naturalistic enclosures, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133(1-2), p. 78-86, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2011.05.007

Julia Chosy, Megan Wilson, Rachel Santymire (2014) Behavioral and physiological responses in felids to exhibit construction, Zoo Biology 33(4), p. 267-274, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.21142

Helen Chum, Stephen Felt, Joseph Garner, Sherril Green (2013) Biology, behavior, and environmental enrichment for the captive African clawed frog (Xenopus spp), Applied Animal Behaviour Science 143(2-4), p. 150-156, Elsevier B.V., url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2012.10.013

Fay E. Clark, Malcolm Fitzpatrick, Andy Hartley, Andrew J. King, Tracey Lee, Andrew Routh, Susan L. Walker, Katherine George (2012) Relationship between behavior, adrenal activity, and environment in zoo-housed western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), Zoo Biology 31(3), p. 306-321, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.20396

Renee M. Clary, James H. Wandersee (2005) Through the looking glass: The history of aquarium views and their potential to improve learning in science classrooms, Science and Education 14(6), p. 579-596, doi:10.1007/s11191-004-7691-1

Anna M. Claxton (2011) The potential of the human–animal relationship as an environmental enrichment for the welfare of zoo-housed animals, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133(1-2), p. 1-10, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2011.03.002

Andrea W. Clay, Bonnie M. Perdue, Diann E. Gaalema, Francine L. Dolins, Mollie A. Bloomsmith (2011) The use of technology to enhance zoological parks, Zoo Biology 30(5), p. 487-497, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.20353

Ros Clubb, Georgia Jane Mason (2007) Natural behavioural biology as a risk factor in carnivore welfare: How analysing species differences could help zoos improve enclosures, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4), p. 303-328, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.033

Mia Cobb, Nick Branson, Paul McGreevy, Alan Lill, Pauleen Bennett (2015) The advent of canine performance science: Offering a sustainable future for working dogs, Behavioural Processes 110, p. 96-104, url, doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2014.10.012

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Mike Corcoran (2015) Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals., The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice 18(2), p. 305-21, Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier, url, doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2015.01.004

Miguel Correia, Pedro M. Domingues, António Sykes, José P. Andrade (2005) Effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), Aquaculture 245(1-4), p. 163-173, url, doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.12.017

Allison L Corwin (2012) Training fish and aquatic invertebrates for husbandry and medical behaviors., The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice 15(3), p. 455-67, url, doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2012.06.009

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Anne C Crook, Roland Baddeley, Daniel Osorio (2002) Identifying the structure in cuttlefish visual signals., Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 357(1427), p. 1617-1624, doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1070

R. J. Crook, R. T. Hanlon, E. T. Walters (2013) Squid Have Nociceptors That Display Widespread Long-Term Sensitization and Spontaneous Activity after Bodily Injury, Journal of Neuroscience 33(24), p. 10021-10026, url, doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0646-13.2013

J. Crow, Michael Howard, V. Levesque, L. Matsushige, S. Spina, M. Schaadt, N. Sowinski, C. Widmer, B. Upton (2013) Jellyfish (CNIDARIA / CTENOPHORA) CARE MANUAL, AZA Aquatic Invertavrate TAG, p. 79

Katalin Csatádi, Kristin Leus, Jeffrey J.M. Pereboom (2008) A brief note on the effects of novel enrichment on an unwanted behaviour of captive bonobos, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 112(1-2), p. 201-204, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2007.09.001

Alfredo D. Cuarón (2005) Further role of zoos in conservation: Monitoring wildlife use and the dilemma of receiving donated and confiscated animals, Zoo Biology 24(2), p. 115-124, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.20040

DEFRA (2012) Zoos Expert Committee Handbook(November), p. 1-211, url

Liza I. Dadone, Amy Schilz, Susan G. Friedman, Jason Bredahl, Steve Foxworth, Bob Chastain (2016) Training giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata ) for front foot radiographs and hoof care, Zoo Biology 35(3), p. 228-236, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.21279

Robert H. I. Dale (2009) Birth statistics for African ( Loxodonta africana ) and Asian ( Elephas maximus ) elephants in human care: history and implications for elephant welfare, Zoo Biology, p. n/a-n/a, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.20234

Jamie a. Dallaire, Rebecca K. Meagher, Georgia J. Mason (2012) Individual differences in stereotypic behaviour predict individual differences in the nature and degree of enrichment use in caged American mink, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 142(1-2), p. 98-108, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2012.09.012

Jonathan Daly, Ian Gunn, Nick Kirby, Robert Jones, David Galloway (2007) Ultrasound examination and behavior scoring of captive broadnose sevengill sharks,Notorynchus cepedianus (Peron, 1807), Zoo Biology 26(5), p. 383-395, url, doi:10.1002/zoo.20155

Marian Dawkins (2015) Animal welfare and the paradox of animal consciousness, Advances in the Study of Behavior 47(August), p. 5-38, doi:10.1016/bs.asb.2014.11.001

Marian Stamp Dawkins (1990) From an animal's point of view: Motivation, fitness, and animal welfare, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13(01), p. 1-9, doi:10.1017/S0140525X00077104

Marian Stamp Dawkins (2003) Behaviour as a tool in the assessment of animal welfare, Zoology 106(4), p. 383-387, url, doi:10.1078/0944-2006-00122

Patrícia Pereira De Lima, Cibele Soares Pontes, Maria de Fátima Arruda (2009) Activity pattern of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) in laboratory as a function of different feeding frequencies, Aquaculture Research 41(1), p. 53-60, url, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02302.x

Kristin A. Descovich, Allan. T. Lisle, Stephen Johnston, Clive J.C. Phillips (2012) Space allowance and the behaviour of captive southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons), Applied Animal Behaviour Science 140(1-2), p. 92-98, url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2012.05.009

A.K.S. Dhanasiri, V. Kiron, J.M.O. Fernandes, Ø. Bergh, M.D. Powell (2011) Novel application of nitrifying bacterial consortia to ease ammonia toxicity in ornamental fish transport units: trials with zebrafish, Journal of Applied Microbiology 111(2), p. 278-292, url, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05050.x

L Dickel, M P Chichery, R Chichery (1998) Time differences in the emergence of short- and long-term memory during post-embryonic development in the cuttlefish, Sepia., Behavioural processes 44(1), p. 81-6, pubmed, doi:10.1016/S0376-6357(98)00024-2

S. Divers (1996) Basic reptile husbandry, history taking and clinical examination, In Practice 18(February), p. 51-65, doi:10.1136/inpract.18.2.51

Laura M. Dixon, Vicky Sandilands, Melissa Bateson, Sarah Brocklehurst, Bert J. Tolkamp, Rick B. D'Eath (2013) Conditioned place preference or aversion as animal welfare assessment tools: Limitations in their application, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 148(1-2), p. 164-176, Elsevier B.V., url, doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2013.07.012

A. Dobson (2005) Monitoring global rates of biodiversity change: challenges that arise in meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2010 goals, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 360(1454), p. 229-241, url, doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1603

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